Let’s study the difference between auto and manual wire harness below.
Although automatic and manual transmissions have the same purpose, they operate differently. And this difference also translates to the wiring.
So, if you decide to do a manual swap or vice versa, you’ll have to change some wires, including the engine harness. Here’s how an auto and manual harness compare.
Table of Contents
- Auto Trans Wiring
- Manual Tranny Wiring
- Differences Between Auto and Manual Wire Harnesses
- Similarities Between Auto and Manual Wire Harnesses
- Wrap Up
Auto Trans Wiring
This automatic harness wiring ensures smooth and efficient gear shifting in auto transmission vehicles by connecting these vital components.
Transmission Control Module
A Transmission Control Module (TCM) is the brain that coordinates the functioning of an auto tranny for efficient shifting.
The module requires data from various sensors to determine how and when to shift to maximize fuel efficiency and performance.
A transmission control module for an automatic trans
Its connections to the sensors, power sources, and other modules, such as the ECU, require reliable cabling that is part of the auto transmission wiring harness.
Gear Shift Position Sensors
These sensors are responsible for detecting the current gear position that is driving the vehicle.
They send this data to the TCM, which then determines if gear shifting is necessary to match the driving conditions.
Therefore, gear shift position sensors are critical for making the TCM determine the most optimal gear for the current vehicle’s speed and load. And their wiring is equally as vital.
Gear Shifting Solenoids
As the TCM receives data from the sensors, it needs a helping hand (actuator) to do the actual gear shifting.
This help comes from the auto tranny solenoids, which are devices that regulate the flow of transmission fluid in the gearbox to engage and disengage gears.
Gear-shifting solenoids in a tractor’s transmission
The module controls these solenoids electrically to enable smooth transitioning, and this connection requires a harness.
Torque Converter Lock-Up Controls
Most modern automatic transmissions feature torque converter lock-up, which locks the device’s case with the turbine using a friction disc.
This linkage creates a direct-drive (1:1) ratio that improves the fuel economy and alleviates pressure from the ATF.
Therefore, an automatic transmission wiring harness includes cables for electronically controlling the torque converter’s lock-up clutch.
An automatic transmission with several wires at the top
Neutral Safety Switch
Neutral safety switches in automatic transmissions ensure the vehicle can only start when the lever is in the parking or neutral position.
Otherwise, turning on the ignition will thrust the vehicle forward or reverse, creating a safety risk, such as an accident.
Manual Tranny Wiring
Manual transmissions have different components compared to automatics, such as the clutch. But some features are typical in both. Here’s what the manual trans harness connects in this system.
Clutch Position Switch Sensor
Manual transmissions don’t have transmission control modules because you (as the driver) are the brains behind the gear shifting.
A clutch pedal sensor
So, the clutch position sensor does not connect to any computer. Instead, it senses the position of the clutch pedal and interacts with a magnet fixed on the master cylinder piston.
It detects clutch pressing to push fluid into the slave cylinder. The fluid in this cylinder presses the clutch fork to disengage from the clutch.
Clutch Interlock Switch
An interlock clutch switch is a safety feature that only allows the engine to start when you press the clutch pedal.
Starting with the vehicle in gear can make it thrust forward or reverse, causing an accident.
This clutch start switch has the secondary function of deactivating the cruise control switch or function if the clutch fails when you’ve set the system to assist you in driving the vehicle.
Neutral Safety Switch
Most manual transmissions have a neutral safety switch that functions parallel to the clutch interlock switch.
Therefore, either one or both switches locking is sufficient to make the engine start because the vehicle won’t jerk forward or reverse.
Gear Position Sensor
Manual transmissions usually use the gear position sensor to determine if the gear is in neutral gear position for auto start/stop functions.
This feature shuts down the engine automatically when you stop the vehicle to save on fuel consumption.
The car can only start if the stick is in the neutral position or the clutch pedal is down.
Therefore, if your vehicle does not have the auto start/stop feature, it won’t have this sensor.
Differences Between Auto and Manual Wire Harnesses
Automatic transmissions usually have more wiring harnesses because they have more electronic components.
The physical differences between the two systems lie in the following areas.
Transmission Control Module
Manual transmissions don’t have TCMs because they don’t need automated gear-shifting control.
This task is entirely placed in your hands, meaning you decide how to drive the vehicle.
If you want to push it hard by holding the gears longer, that is up to you, meaning you determine how fuel-efficient the vehicle will be.
So, automatic transmissions have one additional harness over the manual gearbox.
Automatic transmissions don’t have clutches, meaning they lack clutch position sensors and clutch interlock switches.
So, the manual transmission gains two additional harnesses for these devices.
Torque Converter Lock-Up Control
Autos feature torque converter lock-up controls for efficient 1:1 cruising. This locking occurs electronically, meaning the system requires one extra harness.
Manual transmissions have clutches in place of torque converters, eliminating fluid coupling.
A torque converter (slushbox) next to an auto trans
At this point, the systems are equal at two additional harnesses each.
Gear Shift Position
Not all manual transmissions have gear shift position sensors because they only help with auto start/stop functions.
However, this sensor is necessary for auto transmissions because it feeds the TCM with data about the current gear driving the vehicle.
The TCM uses this data to determine whether to upshift or downshift.
So, autos have one more wire bundle than manuals at this point.
Gear Shift Solenoids
Lastly, automatic transmissions require solenoids to implement the TCM’s instructions (upshifting or downshifting).
Solenoids are electronically controlled coil switches, meaning they need a wire harness from the TCM.
The solenoid pack of a 7-speed automatic gearbox
Instead of solenoids, you use your hand to upshift, downshift, or place the lever in reverse when driving a manual transmission vehicle.
Going by the tally above, that’s two more harnesses in autos than in manual transmissions.
Similarities Between Auto and Manual Wire Harnesses
Although different, both transmissions have a neutral safety switch to keep the car from jerking backward or forward when starting the vehicle.
When comparing the manual and auto harnesses, you have to look at the electrical components that run these systems because the purpose of harnesses is to interconnect them.
As you can see, automatic transmissions have more harnesses due to the TCM, torque converter, gear position sensors, and gear-shifting solenoids.
Manual transmissions have some electronics absent in autos, but their electrical systems are less complex.